Information about city Fergana in Uzbekistan
Fergana Valley is called as the Central Asia’s pearl due to its riches and picturesqueness. Valley is surrounded by Tian-Shan and Gissar-Alay mountains, and only in the west it opens the gates to Syr-Darya river.
Fergana Valley always played important role in the history and culture of Central Asia. Information on Fergana state Davan was contained in ancient Chinese annals in late II century B.C., and during the medieval it was one of the leading principalities of Movaro0un-Nahr. Remains of the bronze, early iron era settlements and medieval monuments remind that in the past the valley was the center of various civilizations.
Margilan is one of the most ancient cities of Central Asia. In 2006 the 2000 anniversary of Margilan will be celebrated. In XI century Margilan was the largest city of Fergana oasis famous for its silk fabrics that were exported by traders to Egypt, Greece, Bagdad, Khorasan and Kashgar through the Great Silk Road. Even today Margilan may be called the silk capital of Uzbekistan. Famous «khan-atlas» fabrics hand woven and dyed according ancient technology are manufactured here.
Small town of Rishtan is situated in fifty kilometers from Fergana. Since IX century rishtanians have been famous for their ceramic goods. Over 1,100 years secrets of production of ceramic items from local sorts of red clay and glaze from natural mineral dyers and ashes of mountain plants have been transferred by masters from generation to generation. Large plates called «lagans», deep cups called «shokosa», water-jugs, vessels for milk decorated with glaze ornament «ishkor» of unforgettable turquoise and ultramarine colors, haeve made the Rishtan’s masters famous at many international exhibitions, they decorate the expositions of mmany world museums and private collections.
Kokand has always been the major city of Fergana Valley. In XVIII-XIX centuries it was the capital of the powerful Kokand Khanate that expanded its power to the most part of Uzbekistan’s current territory and territory of neighboring states. Kokand was the large religious center. In the years of prosperity there were thirty five madrasahs and one hundred mosques in the city. Unfortunately, the majority of them had been destroyed by the time, earthquakes and Soviet rule.
City of Namangan, homeland of Mashrab, famous Uzbek poet has a unique place in the ring of cities and towns of Fergana Valley. Ruins of the ancient city of Aksikent are located not far from Namangan. Archeolofical researches showed that the city had citadel and strong fortress walls. Trade and handicraft production were well developed here. From X to XIII centuries Aksikent was the capital of Fergana Valley. But then it was destroyed by Mongols, and in XVII century - by strongest earthquake. In 1875 Namangan accessed to Russia. At the same time the new city was founded under regular plan. It was separated from the old city by the fortress, from which radial streets branched apart according to established order. In early XX centure Namangan was the second biggest city by populations and it was the center of cotton processing in Fergana Valley. At the same time the cult buildings such as Khodji Amin mausoleum, Mullo Kyrgyz madrasah and others were built and they are preserved to our days.
City of Andijan, homeland of Zahiriddin Babur, poet and author of famous «Baburname» epos, commander, statesman who conquered India and founded the Great Moguls’ Empire is situated near to Namangan.
By age Andijan is one of the most ancient cities of Fergana Valley. Ancient city of Markhamat, capital of the anmcient state of Davan - «Ershi» that was famous for fast horses is located in 30 kilometers from the contemporary city. From this ancient city such horses were delivered to the courts of Chinese emperors as precious jewels. In IX and X centuries Andijan became the possession of Samanids. In XV century the Temurid Babur was Andijan’s ruler.
In 1902 Andijan suffered from strong earthquake, and the city was practically built anew. Among the monuments of past centuries only Djami madrasah was preserved.
Today Andijan is one of the largest industrial centers of Uzbekistan. Joint Uzbek-Korean venture for production of cars was built here, there are machinery plant, cotton mill, textile factory. City is surrounded with fruit gardens, cotton and wheat fields.
Kuva is also one of the most ancient towns of Fergana Valley. Remains of city buildings of III century BC were found in the ancient town of Kuva. Buddha temple of VI-VIII AD were researched and excavated on the territory of ancient town.
Fergana Valley, large blossoming oasis with the most productive lands in Central Asia and wonderful climate is called by right the Golden Valley.