Information about city Tashkent in Uzbekistan
shknt, history of Tashkent, old Tashkent, Tashkent city, Central Asia
Tashkent’s history can be observed from late III century B.C. – time from which the written sources and ancient city inside the contemporary city were preserved. This is the ancient city of Ming Urik situated on the Salar canal. Based on their excavations, the archeologists concluded that the first fortifications of the city were built at the end of I century B.C. - early I century A.D., i.e. the city is already 20 centuries old. Chinese chronicles that were based on the memoirs of the Chinese Ambassador Chjan Tsan with whom the concept of the first caravan route along the Great Silk Road is related can be named among the first written sources.
In various Chinese sources the city is called Shi. At that time it was part of the state of Kongyuy. However, after its disintegration in III-early IV century A.D. city of Shi turned into independent small state. Soon it was conquered by ephtalites who established the great state on the territory of Central Asia. Chinese hieroglyph «Shi» means stone. But sources mention not only this name. For instance, according to writing of Sasanid king Shapur 1 in Iran in 262 A.D. the word «Chach» was drawn on the Zoroaster’s Kaaba.
Starting from IV century A.D. Chach was in the center of many confrontations. In 550 the Turkic Kaganate was established and it included also the conquered Chach. Large groups of nomadic Turkic population intruded it. After fall of the Turkic Kaganate, Chach was governed by local rulers.
In VII-VIII Вcenturies the population was mixed. Ruling elite consisted of Sogdian aristocracy mixed with Turkic one.
In 713 Kuteiba’s troops made a destructive campaign to Chach where later the Caliph’s rule was established. At the same time the network of 4 cities and 20 castles with Madinat-ash-Shash holding tthe central role among them had been formed during the early medieval era. Thus called the Arab sources the city, the ruin of which were studied in the ancient city of Ming Urik.
In VII-VIII centuries Ming Urik reached its maximum prosperity. It included the fortress-citadel and the city itself - Shahristan. Spread of Islam was very difficult. People of Chach supported the Mukanna’s doctrine - they stood against the violence of the Caliphate’s officials. As a result of repressive measures Chach was subjected to destruction and devastation. Destroyed city couldn’t recover for a long time and just a small settlement existed for centuries insted of Ming Urik city. In IX century at the order of Caliphate’s government large amount was released for irrigation needs of the city.
One more name is mentioned in the written sources of IX-X centuries - Binket. It was divided to citadel (arch), internal city (shahristan or madina) and two suburbs - internal (rabad-dekhil) and external (rabad-kharidj). Citadel was surrounded by two gates and contained the ruler’s place, treasury and prison.
IX-XII centuries are the era of prospering industry, trade and culture. This period is called the «golden age», «Muslim Renaissance» in the history of economic and cultural development of Movaro-un-Nahr, where Tashkent played one of the key roles.
In late X century name of the capital city as Tashkent was fixed for the first time in the work of Abu Raykhan Beruni. In the second half of XI century the name of Tashkent was mentioned by the Turkic linguist Makhmud Kashgari who stressed that Tashkent was the Turkic name of Binket.
In early XIII century at the order of Mukhammad Khorezmshah the city was deprived of water suppy completely and inhabitants were forced to leave it. Mongol-Tatar troops entered the empty city and destroyed it to the basement.
During the rule of Emir Temur substantial construction (civil) works were conducted in the city and Tashkent’s neighborhoods. City-fortress of Banokat destroyed in XIII century was built anew and was renamed as Shohruhiya in honor of Emir Temur’s son. During the rule of the last Temurids Tashkent was subject to supreme rulers of Samarkand, then to Bukara’s ruler, or to ruler of Fergana.
In 1503 Tashkent was conquered by Sheibani-Khan. Tashkent’s role as economic and cultural center had grown significantly under the rule of Suyunij-Khodja-Sultan, one of the most powerful khans. Struggle between the Sheibanids and Kazakh sultans for owning the capital continued for many decades.
In XVI century the grand campaign of civil construction was started in Tashkent. Part of buildings were preserved to our days. In 1554 Nauruz Akhmed became the supreme ruler of the Sheibanids’ state, and cities of Fergana were subjected to him. However, siege of Bukhara was failure гand in Samarkand khan was killed in his own camp.
In XVI century Bukhara’s ruler made marches on Tashkent. In 1582 Abdulla-khan finally subjected Tashkent to his rule. During the rule of the first Ashtarkhanids (early XVII century) Kazakh sultans consolidated their position in Tashkent. By that time Tashkent finally acquired its contemporary name.
Until 1723 Tashkent remained under Kazakhs’ rule, then it was ruled by djungars who established great state. Tashkent represented for them an important point as an income source. Under their rule the census of city’s houses and grounds was conducted for the first time in Central Asia. However, in 1758 China destroyed the Djungarian state, and Tashkent found itself under vassalage on Chine. Political situation that existed during that period in the region allowed Tashkent to exist relatively independently. At that time the city consisted of 4 daha (quarters) (Sheikhantaur, Beshagach, Kukcha and Sebzar) that were ruled by 4 independent governors - khodjas. Their rule is called the «period 4 governors. However their striving for conquering the whole city led to armed confrontation. Yunus-Khodja, son of died ruler of Shaikhantaur daha won. With the start of his rule the single Tashkent state with its own policy and army was established. Defense walls taking into account the allocation of artillery was erected. Their height reached 8 meters, and the thickness at the base reached 2 meters. 8 entrance gates were protected. State of Tashkent started minting own coins. Population supported Yunus-khodja’s policy because he undertook all the measures for peaceful purposes. Independence of Tashkent ended in XIX century due to its conquer by the Kokand Khanate. New fortress surrounded with high walls was built on the bank of Ankhor. In turn, palace fortified by its own walls and with three moats was built inside it. There were already 12 gates in the defensive walls of that time.
In the second half of XIX century tsarist Russia made efforts to conquer the city, that ended with success on June 16, 1865, and in 1867 it became the administrative center of Turkestan province. European city was built in the east part of the old city.
Tashkent also became the place of exiles of people unsuitable for the Russian tsar. By early XX century large number of revolutionary mooded people consolidated here, and they prepared the city to revolutionary events of 1917 by communicating with local youth.
In April, 1918 the Turkestan Autonomous Republic with capital in Tashkent was established. In 1924 the national demarcation took place, as a result of which the Uzbek SSR with capital in Samarkand was established. In 1930 Tashkent became the capital city again.
In 1991, after collapsion of Soviet Union, Uzbekistan declared itself as an independent state with its capital in Tashkent.
Today Tashkent is a large industrial center with about 300 companies producing almost everything which contemporary person needs: from aircraft and tractors to TV sets and toys for children. Here the images of old times join the modern skyscrapers made of glass and metal, multilevel overbridges, parks, museums, fountains. Tashkent is rapidly becoming a modern developed international megapolis.